Chemical Energy
What is Chemical Energy?
Chemical energy is energy that is associated with changing the structure and composition of atoms and molecules. It is a type of potential energy. For chemical energy, energy is stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Chemical energy is released in a chemical reaction usually producing heat or a exothermic reaction. Some examples of chemical energy are burning wood, batteries, and burning gasoline in a car.

How is Chemical Energy used?

Chemical Energy is used in fire places. When someone burns wood in a fire place it creates a chemical reaction, changing the structure and bonds in the wood. The wood burning breaks the bonds when it is burning. When things burn they give off an exothermic reaction, converting chemical energy to thermal energy. Chemical Energy is also used like in the images below, burning gasoline, and in batteries.

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Figure 1: Wood burning in a fireplace
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Figure 2: Gasoline burning
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Figure 3: Handmade Battery

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to measure the temperature of a hand warmer, when it is first out of the bag, and after fifteen minutes. This experiment was also conducted to find out how increasingly the temperature rose in a hand warmer, after it is exposed to oxygen. The hand warmer was first exposed to oxygen then wrapped around a thermometer. When it was first exposed to air it was 26.1 degrees Celsius, and after 15 minutes it rose to 35.2 degrees Celsius.



History of Rockets
Early Rocketry
An aeolipile was the first device to contain and show the main principles of a rocket. In about 100 B.C. a Greek inventor named Hero of Alexandria used steam to create something like a propulsive gas for the first time. No one knows when the first true rockets appeared but there are stories of rocket-like devices through historical records. The Chinese had a gunpowder that they used on bamboo during festivals and holidays, they realized that the gun power sometimes shot around rather than create explosions. That is when they used that gunpowder to create things that could launch because the gunpowder would launch themselves through the gas escaping.

Modern Rocketry
In 1898, a Russian teacher named Konstantin Tsiolkovsky had the idea of using rocketry to explore space. He was the first to propose the idea of using liquid propellants to get objects to space. He was considered the Father of Rocketry because of his discoveries, research, and ideas. Robert H. Goddard, had more ideas in the early 20th century. He began by exploring solid propellant rockets. Goddard's first successful flight was in 1926, and he used liquid gasoline and oxygen. The rocket he created flew for 2.5 seconds and launched 12.5 meters high. He experimented with liquid propellants for many years after that. The rocket only got better after these discoveries.

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Figure 1: Solid Fuel Rocket


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Figure 2: Hand Drawn Diagram of Liquid Fuel Rocket