Big Bang to Galaxies

The universe is about 15 billion years old and exploded out of nothing. When the universe started the universe was mostly quarks and energy. After a tenth of a second old protons and nuetrons are being made up of quarks. At one second the universe is made up of small particles like electrons. Soon helium nuclei are being created. At 300,000 years electrons start orbiting helium nuclei and protons to make helium and hydrogen. Light is now able to go away and expand our galaxy at the speed of light. The gasses then formed galaxies about 2 million years after the big bang.

Formation of Galaxies

Galaxies started forming about 2 million years after the big bang. Galaxies are formed by gasses collapsing on each other and creating a star. When it ignites it send out the gas and creates more stars. The gravity holds the stars in the galaxy with a core in the center. Galaxies can take 3 forms, spiral, irregular, elliptical.


The Milky Way Galaxy

Our galaxy was formed about 3 million years after the big bang. It stretches 100,000 light years across and 20,000 light years wide. Our sun is about half way away from the center bulge that has thousands of stars inside of it and is believed at the very center to have a gigantic black hole. Later in our galaxies time we will merge with a different galaxy.

Rotation of the Galaxies

Our galaxy is a spiral galaxy but it doesn't spin how you would expect. Our spirals spin counter clockwise but the stars spin clockwise. So while the dust spins counter clockwise the stars spin in the opposite direction. The stars closer to black hole spin the same speed as the stars on the outside which is also unexpected. Gravity should work like this, the closer it is to the black hole the faster it should spin and the farther away the slower so there is something out there that is making the outer stars go just as fast. The question is what is pushing these outer stars.

Formation of Planets

Our sun was created when gasses collapsed and rotated making the gasses hot and it ignited. The gasses then went away and small fragments of metal and rocks rotated the sun. They collided and came together again to form bigger rocks and metals. Finally the 8 main planets were formed and hardened. The then most of the smaller particles got rocketed out of the galaxy or put in the asteroid belt.

Formation of Moons, comets, and Rings

The earth's moon was created when a rock the size of mars hit in the earth and a chunk came off and orbited the earth. The same thing happened to the other planets. Rings of planets happened when smaller chunks orbited the planets but collided into each other to create dust and small rocks, so the rings were just small rocks and dust rotated the planets. Commits were rocks that got in the suns gravitational pull and were burning up and slingshot away.


Griffin M